What is cystitis? How is cystitis treatment?
Cystitis, which means inflammation of the urinary tract, is one of the most common diseases in the urinary tract and reproductive system. The incidence of cystitis, which is much higher in women, is at least 20 percent of women, at least once in their lifetime. Cystitis, a disease that can spread to the kidneys if not treated in time, can cause permanent damage to the bladder and kidneys.
What are the symptoms of cystitis?
- Burning and pain while urinating (It may continue after urinating),
- Frequent urination,
- Spread of pain to the groin and anus,
- Vomiting and nausea
- Your urine may be cloudy, smelly.
- There may be a feeling of pain during sexual intercourse.
How is cystitis diagnosed?
A urologist can make a diagnosis based on a description of the symptoms and tests. These tests include urine analysis, cystoscopy (observation of the urethra and bladder with a special instrument) and a special x-ray called intravenous pylogram. These examinations are performed especially to investigate the factors that predispose to infection. A urine culture may also be required to identify the bacteria causing the infection. Cystitis is not a major disease if treated promptly and appropriately. If cystitis and its underlying cause are not treated, it becomes chronic and debilitating.
What are the causes of cystitis?
Normally bacteria; They live in the reproductive organs and anus area. Sometimes these bacteria cross the lower urinary tract and reach the bladder. Bacteria reaching the bladder are excreted by urination. However, if the number of bacteria coming to the bladder is more than the number of thrown, they cause inflammation in the bladder and later in the kidneys.
Contagion can occur during sexual intercourse or when genital cleansing is insufficient, as well as long-term retention of urine, diseases that constrict the urinary tract, and low estrogen levels in menopause.
Since the urethra in women is much shorter than in men, it is easier for bacteria to reach the bladder from the outside environment. For this reason, the incidence of cystitis in women is much higher. At least 20 percent of women develop cystitis once in their lifetime.
Although rare, bacteria that cause cystitis can reach the bladder from the top down through the kidney and urinary tract, or from the infection foci in the nearby tissues, through the lymph.
The most common cause of cystitis is a microorganism called Escherichia coli (E.coli, coli bacillus). This bacteria can be found normally in the large intestine and can reach the bladder by sexual intercourse.
What is the treatment for cystitis?
Cystitis is treated with antibiotics. Before starting treatment, samples should be taken for urine culture and antibiogram, antibiotics effective in urinary tract infections should be used until the results are obtained, and these drugs should be changed if necessary according to the antibiogram results. Treatment may be prolonged in chronic infections.
How are the ways to prevent cystitis?
- Wipe from front to back after toilet. Thus, you prevent bacteria in your vaginal and rectal areas from entering the urinary tract.
- Do not hold your urine. Urine as often as possible. So you expel bacteria in the bladder.
- Try to urinate within ten minutes of sexual intercourse.
- Providing sufficient lubrication during sexual intercourse will reduce the damage to the urethra.
- If anal intercourse is to be made, the vaginal area should not be touched or cleaned thoroughly if it is to be done.
- Drinking plenty of water throughout the day (8 glasses a day if possible) will increase urine output and therefore excretion of bacteria.
- Consume beverages such as coffee, tea and alcohol as little as possible. It may have irritating effects on the bladder.
- Do not let your genital area stay moist for a long time. Do not wear tight underwear with nylon. Humidity creates an environment that facilitates the growth of bacteria.
- Always change your underwear every day and use cotton underwear.
The course of cystitis
With proper treatment, symptoms of cystitis disappear within 24 hours. However, the course of the disease depends on the type of the causative microbe and the elimination of risk factors. The disease may become chronic in poorly treated cases.
Cystitis in men
- Because of the length of the urethra, cystitis in men often has other causes. It’s like an enlarged prostate that puts pressure on the urinary tract.
- Frequent or urgent need to urinate,
- Cloudy, foul-smelling, bloody urine (sometimes)
- Mild fever (sometimes).
Cystitis is not a common condition in men. It is easy to treat, the underlying cause must also be treated to prevent recurrence.
A urologist can make a diagnosis based on a description of the symptoms and tests. These tests include urine analysis, cystoscopy (observation of the urethra and bladder with a special instrument) and a special x-ray called intravenous pylogram. A urine culture may also be required to identify the bacteria causing the infection. Cystitis is not a major disease if treated promptly and appropriately. If cystitis and its underlying cause are not treated, it can become chronic.
Drug therapy in cystitis
Antibiotics are given to fight the infection that causes cystitis. Additional medication or surgery may be required for the underlying cause.