What is menstrual irregularity?

What is menstrual irregularity?

Every healthy woman who enters the reproductive period sees an average of once every 28 days. After the first menstruation in adolescence, it is normal for 12 to 18 months to experience menstrual irregularity and delay in menstruation until hormonal order is restored. The same is true for women at the beginning of the menopause period. During puberty or menopause when the levels of the hormones secreted start to increase, the body needs a certain period of time to get used to the new order. However, in the reproductive period and every healthy woman gets her period for an average of 28 days. According to the menstrual calendar of women, menstrual bleeding, which is seen regularly at 21 to 35 days, lasts about 5 to 7 days. It is normal to change about 4 to 5 pads per day during this period. Frequent menstrual periods are mentioned if the menstrual cycle, which differs from person to person, is shorter than 21 days, and if menstrual bleeding occurs in a 36-day or less cycle, a rare menstrual period is mentioned. For the menstrual cycle to take place in an orderly manner, different parts of the body must work in harmony. Problems in one or more areas cause menstrual irregularity to occur. Before answering the question of what causes menstrual irregularity, what are menstrual bleeding and menstrual irregularities should be understood well. Problems in one or more areas cause menstrual irregularity to occur. Before answering the question of what causes menstrual irregularity, what are menstrual bleeding and menstrual irregularities should be understood well. Problems in one or more areas cause menstrual irregularity to occur. Before answering the question of what causes menstrual irregularity, what are menstrual bleeding and menstrual irregularities should be understood well.

What is menstrual irregularity?

The condition of menstruation earlier or later than the normal cycle of the person is called menstrual irregularity. Together with menstrual irregularity, the reasons for delayed menstruation also play an important role in the formation of the menstrual cycle, as the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary and uterus work in harmony. From the first bleeding that occurs during puberty,  menopause The menstrual cycle, which is regularly repeated every month until the period, occurs every 21 to 35 days, in other words, every 28 days on average. In order to detect menstrual irregularity, the number of days between the first day of menstrual bleeding and the first bleeding in the next period should be noted. In the presence of bleeding that occurs less than 21 days and more than 35 days, menstrual irregularity can be mentioned. In addition, the absence of bleeding in 3 or more periods, the amount and duration of bleeding less or more than normal, and bleeding outside the menstrual period are considered menstrual irregularity. Possible hemorrhoids, etc. during the control of menstrual bleeding. Attention should be paid to rectal bleeding that may develop depending on the formations. Disorders affecting menstrual patterns are defined as follows:

  • Hypermenorrhea:  More than normal amount of menstrual bleeding
  • Hypomenorrhea:  Less than normal bleeding
  • Menometrorrhagia:  excessive bleeding at irregular intervals
  • Menorrhagia:  prolongation of the menstrual period
  • Metroragia:  Menstrual bleeding occurs at irregular intervals
  • Oligomenorrhea:  Two menstrual cycles for more than 35 days. Infrequent menstruation.
  • Polymenorrhea:  Two menstrual cycles for less than 21 days. Frequent menstruation

Causes of menstrual irregularity?

Menstrual irregularity is a situation that has a wide range of reasons and varies from person to person. It can be seen in many different conditions such as menstrual irregularity, menopause, diabetes, depression, smoking, ectopic pregnancy, ovarian cysts, lack of egg in the egg reserve,  uterine fibroids , uterine and ovarian cancers, excessive growth of the uterine wall defined as endometrial hyperplasia. Hypothyroidism , known as insufficient secretion of thyroid hormones  hyperthyroidism, which is defined as excessive secretion of thyroid hormone, can also cause menstrual irregularity. Like diabetes, low body weight is among the factors that negatively affect reproductive functions and ovulation, and therefore among the causes of menstrual irregularity. Some regularly used medical and herbal medicines, especially birth control and morning-after pills, cause disruption of the menstrual cycle. Entering early menopause, some chronic diseases, heavy exercise, coagulation disorders, rapid weight gain and loss, liver and kidney diseases, sudden climate and environmental changes are among the reasons that lead to menstrual irregularities. In addition, unbalanced nutrition and stress are among the main factors that disrupt the menstrual cycle. Stress that can upset the hormonal balance in an instant.

How is menstrual irregularity diagnosed?

A detailed anamnesis of the patient who applied to the doctor with the complaint of menstrual irregularity is taken. The interval, duration and amount of bleeding are questioned in detail. After the family history is taken, the presence of drugs used and menopause is questioned. After the physical and gynecological examination, the intrauterine is observed in detail with ultrasound and hysteroscopy when necessary. Smear test for  suspected  cervical cancer and, when necessary, a biopsy is taken from the uterus and the suspicion of uterine cancer is ruled out. It is investigated whether ovulation is present with the serum progesterone test. In the presence of suspicion of adenomyosis, detailed imaging is performed with MRI. In addition, possible abnormalities at the hormonal level are detected with detailed laboratory tests. It is investigated whether there is a problem with coagulation. The hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary and uterus, which play a role in the formation of a healthy menstrual cycle, are thoroughly checked. In the light of all radiological examinations and laboratory tests, the factor causing menstrual irregularity is determined.

What is menstrual bleeding?

Menstrual bleeding, which starts with adolescence, is a healthy condition that occurs every 28 days on average until the menopause period. Every woman who is in the reproductive period regularly goes through menstruation. For menstrual bleeding to occur every month and at regular intervals, many organs in the body must fulfill their functions correctly. The hypothalamus region in the brain stimulates the pituitary gland and ensures the secretion of FSH and LH hormones. Egg follicles in the ovarian reserve are stimulated with the mixing of the increased hormone level into the blood. This is how the ripening and cracking process of eggs begins. The follicle containing the eggs secretes the estrogen hormone with the cracking of the egg. With estrogen released, the endometrium, known as the intrauterine wall, begins to thicken for possible pregnancy. progesterone  production increases. This change in the hormonal order causes the intrauterine tissue prepared for possible pregnancy to shed. Tissue spilled from the uterus is expelled from the vaginal way and thus menstrual bleeding occurs. In order for the menstrual cycle to occur regularly, this process is repeated every 28 days on average.

How is menstrual irregularity treated?

Although menstrual irregularities occurring once or twice in the same calendar year are considered normal, irregularities occurring above this limit require diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it is important to follow the menstrual dates regularly, starting from adolescence when the first menstrual period is observed. In addition, the duration and amount of menstrual bleeding should be controlled. In order to determine the appropriate treatment method, the factor that causes menstrual irregularity must be determined. After the detailed gynecological examination, radiological examination and laboratory tests, the appropriate medical or surgical treatment method is determined. In the presence of ovarian cysts and polyps or fibroids in the cervix or uterus, laparoscopic hysteroscopy, commonly known as closed surgery, is performed. Menstrual irregularity cases other than this type of organic factors, mostly develops due to hormonal irregularities. In such cases, medicinal treatment is applied, hormonal balance is established and menstrual irregularity is eliminated. Do not neglect to have regular checks for a healthy life.